Martydom and Imitation in Early Christian Texts and Art
This volume explores the phenomenon of Christian martyrdom and ideas of “following Christ,” in particular focusing on theological and pragmatic difficulties in the early Christian period.
How can martyrs successfully follow Christ without themselves entering into a competition with Christ? What happens when the idea of following Christ so faithfully as to experience martyrdom becomes impossible because of the fundamentally different living situation of the faithful? How are model and imitation shaped in comparison to pagan exempla? Contributions from archaeology, classical philology, ancient history, theology, and art history suggest some answers to these questions, drawing equally on ancient literature and material culture.
In the last two decades we have had many books and proceedings of conferences on the history, formulas and incantations of magic in antiquity, both in East and West, but this is the first book of its kind that focuses on the material aspects of magic, such as gems, rings, drawings, grimoires, amulets and figurines.
In recent years scholars have focused not only on the discourse and practices of magic in antiquity, but also on its practitioners, literary stereotypes and historical shifts. Much less attention, however, has been paid to the material that was used by the magicians for their curses and incantations. Yet there is no magic without materiality. The practice of magic required a specialist expertise that knew how to handle material such as lead, gold, stones, papyrus, figurines or voodoo dolls. That is why we present new insights on the materiality of magic by studying both the materials used for magic as well as the books in which the expertise was preserved.
Die Götterbilder der fortgeschrittenen römischen Kaiserzeit folgen einer traditionellen Bildsprache, die durch die vorbildhaften Statuen der griechischen Klassik geprägt ist. Gleichzeitig unterscheiden sie sich signifikant von früheren Epochen: Vorbilder werden variiert, Elemente verschiedener Bildwerke miteinander kombiniert und eigene Bild- und Erzählzusammenhänge neu geschaffen. Die Götterstatuen des 2. bis 4. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. erhalten immer mehr Attribute und dekorative Details; Statuenstützen und Plinthen werden mit beigeordneten Figuren bereichert; statuarische Gruppen setzen Handlungsabläufe in Szene. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes untersuchen, wie Götterbilder der mittleren und der späteren Kaiserzeit gewandelte religiöse Vorstellungen visualisieren und ihnen eine sinnlich erfahrbare Präsenz verleihen. Sie zeigen, wie sich damit ältere Auffassungen vom Wesen der Götter stabilisieren, gleichzeitig aber auch neue religiöse Auffassungen manifest und verstetigt werden.